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Fundamental data
structures: Arrays, stacks, queues, heaps (priority queues), lists, maps
(associative arrays), search trees and graphs. Algorithms to manipulate the
above structures. Sorting and tree-exploration algorithms. Divide-and-conquer
algorithms. Basic graph algorithms. Asymptotic analysis of algorithm time
complexity and correctness proof. Design, analysis and implementation that uses
data structures and algorithms to solve practical and modern-day engineering
problems, such as machine learning, artificial intelligence, fuzzy control,
system simulation, etc.

Ohm’s and Kirchhoff’s
laws. Series and parallel connections. Voltage and current division. Nodal and
mesh analysis. Superposition theorem. Thevenin’s and Norton’s theorems. Source
transformation. Maximum power transfer. Inductance and capacitance. Behavior of
R, L and C under steady-state DC or AC conditions. Characteristics of
sinusoids. The phasor concept. Phasor relationships for R, L, and C elements.
Impedance and admittance. Effective values of current and voltage.
Instantaneous, average and apparent power. Power factor. Resonance. Three-phase
systems. Three-phase wye and delta connections. Introduction to semiconductors.
The PN junction. Diode characteristics. Applications of diodes: switches,
rectifiers, etc. Transistors: operation, model, voltage-current
characteristics. Applications of transistors: amplifiers, switches, etc.
Operational Amplifiers. Safety considerations. Protective grounding.

Electric measurement
equipment. Ohm’s law. Resistors and DC Circuits. Series and parallel
connections. Voltage and current division. Nodal and mesh analysis.
Superposition theorem. Thevenin’s and Norton’s theorems. Maximum power
transfer. Inductance and capacitance. AC systems. Impedance concept and phase
shift in RL and RC circuits. Measurement of power and power factor. Resonance.
Three-phase wye and delta connections. Diodes and their applications: half-wave
rectifiers, full-wave rectifiers, etc. Transistors and their applications:
amplifiers, switches, etc. Residential wiring and safety considerations.

Units, definitions and
simple electrical circuits. Series and parallel connections. Voltage and
current division. Circuit analysis techniques. Superposition theorem.
Thevenin’s and Norton’s theorems. Inductance and capacitance. Analysis of
source-free RL and RC circuits. The application of unit-step forcing functions
to RL and RC circuits. Analysis of source-free RLC circuits. The complete
response of RLC circuits. The sinusoidal forcing function. The phasor concept.
The phasor relationships for R, L and C. Impedance and admittance. The
sinusoidal steady state response. Circuit analysis using matlab and SPICE.

Current and voltage RMS
values. Instantaneous, average, real, reactive and complex power. Power factor.
Polyphase circuits. Three-phase wye and delta connections. Power in three phase
systems. Frequency response transfer function. Principles of filtering. Basic
passive and active filters. Parallel and series resonance. Bode plots. Magnetically
coupled circuits. Mutual coupling. Linear and ideal transformers. General
two-port networks. Impedance, admittance, and transmission parameters. Circuit
analysis using software simulation.

Electrical
measurement devices. Resistors and DC Circuits. Series/parallel combinations.
Voltage/current division. Kirchhoff's laws. Nodal/mesh analysis. Network
Theorems. Maximum power transfer. Transient analysis in RL and RC circuits.
Impedance concept. Inductive and capacitive reactance. AC power measurement and
power factor. Series and parallel resonant RLC circuits. Quality factor.
Three-phase wye and delta circuits. Parameters of two-port networks. Filters
including: low-pass filter (LPF), high-pass filter (HPF) and band-pass filter
(BPF). Coupled circuits. Residential wiring and electrical safety
considerations.

Signal classification
and system models. Continuous time signals. Signals and vectors. Generalized
Fourier series representation. Amplitude and phase spectra of signals. Energy
and power content of signals. Bandwidth of signals. The Fourier transform and
its applications. Sampling of signals. Convolution of signals. Power and energy
spectral densities. Correlation functions. Time-domain analysis of continuous
time systems. The system impulse response. Communication channels. Filters: low-pass
filter, high-pass filter, band-pass filter and band-stop filter. Discrete time
signals. The discrete Fourier transform (DFT) and the Fast Fourier transform
(FFT). Spectral analysis of DFT systems. Unit sample response to arbitrary
input sequences. Introduction to the Z-transform. Project.

Introduction. Review
of vector analysis and coordinate systems. Coulomb’s law and the electric
field. Potential and gradient. Electric flux density. Gauss law and divergence
theorem. Electric fields in material space. Capacitors. Boundary conditions.
Poisson’s and Laplace’s equations. Method of images. Biot-Savart’s law.
Ampere’s law. Magnetic vector potential. The curl and Stock’s theorem. Magnetic
force, torque and moment. Magnetic dipole. Practical applications. Magnetic
properties of materials. The B-H curve and the hysteresis concept. Boundary
conditions. Inductors. Magneticcircuits. Interaction between fields and charged
particles. Faraday’s law. Displacement current. Maxwell’s equations. Continuity
equation and the relaxation relationship. Time varying potential. Time-harmonic
fields.

Introduction to
semiconductors. Electrical properties of intrinsic and doped semiconductors.
Diffusion process in semiconductors. The P-N junction. Open-circuit P-N
junction. Forward and reverse biased junction. Temperature effects. Small and
large-signal models. Junction capacitance and switching times. Diode types and
common applications. Rectification. Rectifier filters. Limiting and clamping
circuits. Zener, varactor and Schottky diodes. Light Emitting Diodes (LED) and
photodiodes. Analysis of circuits containing P-N junction diodes. The Bipolar
Junction Transistor (BJT): structure, characteristics, models, and
configurations. DC biasing and load line analysis. BJT transistor as a switch
and amplifier. BJT transistor ratings. The Field-Effect Transistor (FET):
structure, characteristics, models, and configurations. Types of FET
transistor: Junction Gate Field-Effect Transistor (JFET) and
Metal-Oxide-Semiconductor Field-Effect Transistor (MOSFET). DC biasing and load
line analysis. FET transistor as a switch and amplifier. Analysis of amplifier
circuits at low frequencies.

Mathematical
preliminaries. Numerical errors. Loss of significance and error propagation. MATLAB
as a mathematical analysis tool. MATLAB variables, vectors and matrices. Operator
precedence. Matrix indexing. Built-in and user-defined functions. Relational
operators and conditional statements. Flow control structures and loops.
Plotting. Numerical solution of nonlinear algebraic equations. Numerical
solution of systems of linear equations. Numerical solutions of systems of
non-linear algebraic equations. Interpolation, approximation and curve fitting.
Numerical differentiation and integration. Numerical solution of ordinary differential
equations. Eigenvalue problems. Numerical solution of partial differential
equations. MATLAB symbolic engine. Using symbolic capabilities for liner
algebra, calculus and other problems. Introduction to Simulink and its
libraries. Simulating some engineering systems and finding solutions. Practical
exercises.

Introduction to
probability and random variables. Discrete random variables. Continuous random
variables. The probability distribution function. The probability density
function. Examples of popular distributions: Bernoulli, binomial, Poisson,
geometric, normal, etc. Conditional probability. Joint distributions.
Statistics of random variables. The central limit theorem. Analyzing
measurements using statistical techniques. Measures of central tendency (mean,
median, mode). Measures of variation (range, interquartile, variance, standard
deviation, coefficient of variation, Chebyshev’s rule and empirical rule). Measures
of position (Z-score, percentiles and outliers). Graphical data analysis,
frequency distributions, standard error, goodness of fit. Linear regression.
Confidence intervals and sample size. Counting methods, combinations and
permutations. Statistical inference about one and two population parameters.
Hypothesis testing. Random processes. Ergodicity and stationarity.

Introduction.
Maxwell’s equation. Wave equation. Plane wave (PW) in general medium.
Wavelength, wave number, direction of wave propagation, phase velocity, group
velocity, phase and attenuation constants and wave impedance. PW propagation in
lossless, lossy and good conducting media. Skin effect and the surface
impedance in lossy and good conducting media. Generalized form of the PW.
Poynting vector. Normal incidence on one and multiple media and oblique
incidence of the UPW. Wave polarization. Consideration of some practical
problems. Transmission lines (TL). Transient analysis of lossless TL. Analysis
of TL for harmonic source using vector and crank diagram. Short TL (stubs). TL
charts. Matching using single stub, double stubs and quarter wavelength TL.
Impedance measurement. Time Domain Reflectometer (TDR). Waveguides. Rectangular
and circular waveguides. Slots in waveguide. The concept of resonant cavity.
Waveguide Excitation. Introduction to antennas including the different
parameters of an antenna. Short and half-wavelength dipoles. Loop antennas.
Antenna characteristics.

Biasing of transistor
(BJT and FET). Amplification. Single-stage amplifier. Cascaded BJT and FET
amplifiers. Composite transistor stages. AC load line analysis. Operational
amplifiers and Applications. Operational amplifier architectures. Gain with
active load. DC level shifting. Differential amplifier. Frequency response of
amplifiers. The low-frequency response of all amplifier configurations. The
high-frequency response of all amplifier configurations. The frequency response
of cascaded stages. Feedback Amplifiers. Properties of negative-feedback
amplifiers. Analysis of feedback amplifiers.

Diode characteristics
and applications. Half-Wave Rectifier (HWR). Full-Wave Rectifier (FWR).
Clipper, clamper and peak detector. Zener diode characteristics and voltage
regulators. Bipolar Junction Transistor (BJT) characteristics and biasing. BJT
transistor applications: amplification and switching. Metal-Oxide-Semiconductor
Field-Effect Transistor (MOSFET) characteristics and biasing. MOSFET transistor
applications: amplification and switching. Frequency response of transistor
amplifiers. Operational Amplifiers (Op-Amp) and their applications.
Introduction to advanced circuits such as cascaded amplifiers, feedback
amplifiers, differential amplifiers and oscillators

Magnetic circuits.
Single-phase transformers: principles, analysis and performance
characteristics. Three-phase transformers: construction, connections and vector
groups. Single-phase and three-phase transformer testing. Electromechanical
energy conversion. Basic principles of DC mechanics. Principles and
classification of DC generators. DC motors: analysis, performance
characteristics, starting and speed control. DC machines testing. Rotating
field. Synchronous generators: classification, analysis, performance characteristics,
synchronization process and parallel operation.

Magnetic circuits.
Single-phase and three-phase transformers: principles, analysis, performance
characteristics and testing. Electromechanical energy conversion. DC generators
and DC motors: analysis, performance characteristics, and motor speed control.
Three-phase synchronous generators. Three-phase synchronous motors: analysis,
performance characteristics, applications, starting and testing. Three-phase
induction motors: analysis, performance characteristics, testing, starting and
speed control. Introduction to single-phase induction motors. Introduction to
special types of motors: stepper motors, universal motors, reluctance motors,
burshless DC motors.

Classification of
communication systems. Channel impairments: attenuation, distortion, noise,
etc. Continuous-wave (CW) modulation. Double Sideband Suppressed Carrier
(DSB-SC), Amplitude Modulation (AM) and Quadrature Amplitude Modulation (QAM).
Bandwidth. Mixers. Coherent detection and effects of frequency/phase errors.
Frequency Modulation (FM) and Phase Modulation (PM). AM and FM transmitters,
receivers and radio broadcasting. Noise sources and noise representation in CW
modulation. Signal-to-Noise Ratio (SNR) calculations. Frequency Division
Multiplexing (FDM) and Time Division Multiplexing (TDM). Introduction to
baseband transmission: sampling, quantization, line coding, and pulse shaping.
Introduction to digital modulation techniques: ASK, FSK, PSK and QPSK. Introduction
to performance of digital modulation schemes in the presence of noise.

Review of baseband
transmission: sampling, quantization, line coding and pulse shaping. Power
spectral density of line coding techniques. Performance of line coding
techniques. PAM, PWM, PPM and Pulse Code Modulation (PCM). Differential PCM. Digital
modulation formats: ASK, FSK, PSK, QPSK and QAM. Optimum receiver design.
Matched filter derivation and design for digital modulation formats. Signal
space representation. Performance evaluation for digital modulation in AWGN
channel. Probability of symbol and bit error for the different modulation
formats. Channel coding and its effect on probability of bit error. Hamming
codes. Convolutional codes. Linear block codes. Error correcting capability of
linear block codes.

Introduction to
digital signal processing (DSP). Discrete time signals and systems.
Z-transform. Modeling and implementation forms of discrete time systems. Time-
and frequency-domain analysis of digital processors. Design and analysis of
finite impulse response filters (FIR). Analog filter approximations. Design and
analysis of infinite impulse response (IIR) filters. Digital filter networks.
Digital equalizers. The discrete Fourier transform (DFT) and fast Fourier
transform (FFT) algorithms. DSP algorithms and applications. Project.

Communication system
block diagram. Brief history of telecommunications. Wired versus wireless
communication systems. Modeling of wireless channels. Radio-wave prorogation
models. Link budget calculations. Antenna types and system gain. Multipath
transmission. Small-scale and large-scale fading. Performance evaluation of bit
error rate within fading channels. Terrestrial (microwave) and satellite
communication systems (including uplink and downlink budget calculations). Satellite
applications and GPS Systems. Multiplexing and multiple access techniques:
TDMA, FDMA, CDMA, OFDMA. Orthogonality and spread spectrum techniques. Modern
wireless communication technologies: Wi-Fi, Bluetooth, Zigbee, NFC, IoT, etc.
Classical wired communication systems: Telephony systems and voice
communications. Voice companders. Echo canceling. Signaling systems. Plesiochronous
and Synchronous digital hierarchies (PDH and SDH). Long-distance optical fiber
transmission. Introduction to source coding and the entropy concept.

Introduction to communication
networks and the OSI model. Circuit switching and packet switching. Physical
layer and transmission media. Asynchronous and synchronous transmission. Local
loop access technologies. Data Link Layer Principles. IEEE 802.x Medium Access
Control (MAC) protocols: LANs, MANs, WANs and PANs. The concept of
internetworking and the Internet Protocol (IP). IP Specifications and
supporting protocols (ARP, DHCP, ICMP, etc). Routing and switching in IP
networks. Repeaters, Switches, Hubs, Bridges, Routers and Gateways. UDP and TCP
transport layers. Internet applications.

Amplitude Modulation
(AM) transmission and reception. AM modulation index, power efficiency,
synchrony and asynchronous demodulation. Frequency Modulation (FM) modulators
and demodulators. Quadrature detector. Phase-locked loop (PLL). Measurements
using the spectrum analyzer. Baseband binary transmission and line coding
techniques: Unipolar, Polar and Manchester. Clock synchronization. Generation
and reception of binary Amplitude Shift Keying (ASK), Phase Shift Keying (PSK),
and Frequency Shift Keying (FSK) signals. Eye diagram. Hardware design project

Open-loop and closed-loop
(feedback) control systems. Examples of feedback control systems.Review of complex variables and Laplace
transform. Poles and element transfer function and block diagram. Modeling of
physical systems: electrical, mechanical, hydraulic and pneumatic systems.
Linearization of nonlinear systems. System representations: system block
diagrams and signal flow graphs. Overall transfer function, block diagram
reduction techniques and Mason’s gain formula.Introduction to state-space representation. Sensitivity of open loop and
closed loop control systems.Time
response analysis and performance indices of first and second order systems.
Dominant poles of high order systems. Routh-Hurwitz stability criterion. Steady
state error coefficients. Design and effects of basic control actions and their
combinations: proportional, integral and derivative. Effects of velocity
feedback. Stability analysis using root locus. Bode diagrams and Nyquist
stability criterion.Gain and phase
margins, and obtaining transfer function using Bode diagrams. Introduction to
analysis and design using state-space equations.

Basic elements of
power electronics systems. Power electronics concepts and applications.
Converters classification. Power electronics switches and semiconductor devices.
DC-DC converters: the choppers concept, buck, boost, and buck-boost converters,
and switched mode DC power supplies. Inverters: half-bridge and full-bridge
inverters, PWM and SPWM techniques, three phase inverters, and six step inverter.
Fourier analysis and total harmonic distortion analysis for inverters.
Half-wave and full-wave rectifiers, half-wave rectifier with RL loads, half-wave
rectifier with capacitive loads. Controlled half-wave rectifiers. Single-phase
and three-phase full-wave rectifiers. Controlled full-wave rectifiers. AC
controllers, single-phase AC voltage controllers, three-phase voltage
controllers.

Digital signal
characteristics. Digital gates characteristics: voltage transfer curve,
fan-in/fan-out, and static/dynamic power dissipation. Transistor models
(Ebers-Moll model). Characteristics and analysis of BJT logic families:
Resistor-Transistor Logic (RTL), Diode Transistor Logic (DTL),
Transistor-Transistor Logic (TTL), Schottky TTL, and Emitter-Coupled Logic
(ECL). CMOS logic circuits analysis, design, and evaluation. Logic CMOS
circuits types and dynamic logic. CMOS Tri-state gates. Programmable logic
devices. Memory architecture analysis and evaluation: ROM, EEPROM, Static
Random Access Memory (SRAM), and Dynamic Random Access Memory (DRAM). Waveform
generating blocks: Astable and Monostable circuits. Analog-to-Digital Converter
(ADC) and Digital-to-Analog Converter (DAC). Introduction to VLSI design flow
and CMOS fabrication. Using computer-aided design software for digital
electronics.