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Natural light is one of the most important elements in architecture, helping to transform spaces and save energy. Day lighting design starts with the selection of a building site and continues as long as the building is occupied. This study is seeking to enhance buildings envelope facades with architectural aesthetic potential and optimizing daylight to boost both the quality of health and wellbeing as well as improving the building energy efficiency. The primary control of daylight should be made by the choice of the opening size and Position. This study tries to form the architectural composition of façade which can be Measured by using digital technology involved in building physics, through Computational process of cellular automata (CA). Cellular automata are the computational method which can simulate the process of Growth by describing a complex system by simple individuals following simple rules. The connection to architecture is the ability of cellular automata to generate patterns, which is useful to propose an innovative design strategy. © Research India Publications.
هندسة العمارةهندسة العمارة5/1/2016هندسة العمارة


The ultra-wideband (UWB) antennas are required to cover high impedance bandwidth such that the return loss (RL) is greater than 10 dB with improved gain and radiation efficiency which are required for the different applications. In this UWB range (3.1-10.6 GHz), there are other applications, using narrow band frequency bands, such as WiMAX (3.3-3.7) GHz, WLAN (5.15-5.825) GHz and others. In this case it is needed to filter out these different applications which interfere with the UWB system. This can be performed by redesigning the printed circuit antenna to have an inherent characteristics with band rejection behavior to eliminate some or all of these interfering signals. © 2016 IEEE
الهندسة الكهربائيةالهندسة الكهربائية6/26/2016الهندسة الكهربائية

Jordan has significant oil shale deposits occurring in 26 known localities. Geological surveys indicate that the existing deposits underlie more than 60% of Jordan's territory. The resource consists of 40 to 70 billion tones of oil shale, which may be equivalent to more than 5 million tones of shale oil. Since the 1960s, Jordan has been investigating economical and environmental methods for utilizing oil shale. Due to its high organic content, is considered a suitable source of energy. This paper introduces a circulating fluidized bed combustor that simulates the behavior of full scale municipal oil shale combustors. The inside diameter of the combustor is 500 mm, the height is 3000 mm. The design of the CFB is presented. The main parameters which affect the combustion process are elucidated in the paper. The size of the laboratory scale fluidized bed reactor is 3 kW, which corresponds to a fuel-feeding rate of approximately 1.5 kg/h. © 2012 American Institute of Physics
الهندسة الميكانيكيةالهندسة الميكانيكية8/1/2012الهندسة الميكانيكية

A Ca/Na-aluminosilicate was synthesized from kaolin and limestone via the hydrothermal reaction and was used for CO2 capture from a gas stream. Synthesis was performed at several combinations of temperature, pressure, kaolinite to limestone mass ratio, and the reaction time. The products were characterized by determining the crystalinity, surface morphology, surface area, and the pore size distribution. When the reaction temperature and pressure are increased, the sodium hydroxide concentration has a significant effect on the formation of novel Ca/Na-aluminosilicate phases. X-ray diffraction shows that a mixture of Gehlenite Ca2Al(Al1.22Si0.78O6.78)OH0.22 (43 wt %) and Stilbite Na5.76Ca4.96(Al15.68Si56.32O144) (57 wt%) is produced in 36 M NaOH at 200 °C and 15 bar. The adsorption capacity of the above product for CO2 from a gas stream increased with temperature, reaching a CO2 uptake of 294.7 mg/g at an equilibrium pressure of 45 bar and a temperature of 150 °C. Thermodynamic studies show spontaneous and endothermic adsorption behavior with a ΔHads of 4.64 kJ/mol, ΔSads of 25.25 J/mol.K, and ΔGads of -6.09 kJ/mol obtained at 150 °C. The CO2 adsorption/cycling process were repeated and it was found that the capacity of the novel adsorbent decreases in the second cycle and remains constant after that. This suggests chemisorption process took place on the fresh adsorbent and physical adsorption occurred at higher cycles. © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved
الهندسة الكيميائيةالهندسة الكيميائية3/1/2016الهندسة الكيميائية

In this paper user verification and identification system on touch screen mobile devices is proposed. The system examines the keystroke dynamics and uses it as a second authentication factor. The study proposes a prototype for a keyboard application developed for collecting timing and non-Timing information from keystroke dynamics. In addition to other mentioned in literature studies, we propose complex password combination, which consists of text, numbers, and special characters. Strengthening access control using artificial neural networking model is suggested. Neural network model based on multilayer perceptron classifier which uses back propagation algorithm is proposed. This paper presents a unique approach for combining timing and non-Timing features together, as it includes several non-Timing features such pressure, size, and position in addition to the duration time features. Several experiments have been done based on specific machine learning for data mining and classification toolkit named WEKA. The obtained results show that keystroke dynamics provides acceptable level of performance measures as a second authentication factor. The distinguishable role for non-Timing features beside the timing features is demonstrated. These features have a significant role for improving the performance measures of keystroke dynamic behavioral authentication. The proposed model achieves lower error rate of false acceptance of 2.2%, false rejection of 8.67%, and equal error rate of 5.43% which are better than most of references provided in the literature. © 2016 IEEE.
هندسة الحاسوبهندسة الحاسوب8/1/2016هندسة الحاسوب

This paper presents the design and testing of a gentle pump prototype that is operated by a rotating magnetic field. The pump targets applications in which the pumped fluid contains stress sensitive microparticles which may be damaged when subjected to the high stress levels prevalent in conventional pumps. The prototype was tested in-vitro using blood from human volunteers, and according to published international protocols for the assessment of the hemolytic properties of continuous flow blood pumps used in extracorporeal or implantable circulatory assist devices. The normalized index of hemolysis (NIH) was found to be about 0.007, which is comparable with that obtained from top ranking blood pumps available in the market today. © 2015 IEEE.
هندسة الميكاترونيكسهندسة الميكاترونيكس12/8/2015هندسة الميكاترونيكس

​The population balance equation (PBE) is an integro-partial differential equation with nonlinear source term. The PBE is known to admit analytical solutions only for a few cases with restricted forms of interaction kernels. We propose for the first time a novel converging sequence of continuous approximations to the number concentration function as a solution to the population balance equation (PBE). These approximations are internally consistent with respect to any finite number of desired moments. The uniqueness and convergence of such a sequence are assured by being an optimal solution to the constrained NLP, which maximizes the constrained Shannon entropy function. The solution is an optimal functional containing the maximum missed information about the distribution. This entropy maximization problem is a convex program and is solved by converting the constrained NLP into a set of transport equations in terms of the optimal Lagrange multipliers. Since differential form of the Lagrange multipliers is used, the method is given the name the Differential Maximum Entropy (DMaxEnt) method. The DMaxEnt method is tested using many standard and even complex liquid–liquid extraction processes, where the population balance modeling is needed.

الهندسة الكيميائيةالهندسة الكيميائية1/9/2014الهندسة الكيميائية

Modeling and dynamic analysis of liquid extraction columns are essential for the design, control strategies and understanding of column behavior during start up and shutdown. Because of the discrete character of the dispersed phase, the population balance modeling framework is needed. Due to the mathematical complexity of the full population balance model, it is still not feasible for dynamic and online control purposes. In this work, a reduced mathematical model is developed by applying the concept of the primary and secondary particle method (Attarakih et al., 2009b, Solution of the population balance equation using the one primary and one secondary particle method (OPOSPM), Computer Aided Chemical Engineering, vol. 26, pp. 1333–1338). The method is extended to solve the nonhomogenous bivariate population balance equation, which describes the coupled hydrodynamics and mass transfer in an RDC extraction column. The model uses only one primary and one secondary particles, which can be considered as Lagrangian fluid particles carrying information about the distribution as it evolves in space and time. This information includes averaged quantities such as total number, volume and solute concentrations, which are tracked directly through a system of coupled hyperbolic conservation laws with nonlinear source terms. The model describes droplet breakage, coalescence and interphase solute transfer. Rigorous hyperbolic analysis of OPOSPM uncovered the existence of four waves traveling along the column height. Three of these are contact waves, which carry volume and solute concentration information. The dynamic analysis in this paper reveals that the dominant time constant is due to solute concentration in the continuous phase. On the other hand, the response of the dispersed phase mean properties is relatively faster than the solute concentration in the continuous phase. Special shock capturing method based on the upwind scheme with flux vector splitting is used, with explicit wave speeds, as a time–space solver. The model shows a good match between analytical and numerical results for special steady state and dynamic cases as well as the published steady state experimental data.

الهندسة الكيميائيةالهندسة الكيميائية3/22/2013الهندسة الكيميائية

In this work, the Sectional Quadrature Method Of Moments (SQMOM) is extended to a one-dimensional physical spatial domain and resolved using the finite volume method. To close the mathematical model, the required quadrature nodes and weights are calculated using the analytical solution based on the Two Unequal Weights Quadrature (TUEWQ) formula derived by Attarakih et al. (Attarakih, M., Drumm, C., & Bart, H.-J., (2009), Solution of the population balance equation using the Sectional Quadrature Method of Moments (SQMOM). Chemical Engineering Science, 64, 742–752). By applying the finite volume method to the spatial domain, we end up with a semi-discreet ordinary differential equation system which is solved using the MATLAB standard ODE solvers (ode45). As a case study, the SQMOM is used to investigate the dynamic behavior of a Kühni DN150 liquid–liquid extraction column. As an independent validation step, the SQMOM prediction is compared with the PPBLab software which utilizes the extended fixed pivot technique as a built-in population balance model solver. Furthermore, the SQMOM is validated using the available dynamic experimental data from a Kühni liquid extraction column using water-acetone-toluene chemical test system. The dynamic analyses of the Kühni column show very interesting features concerning the coupled column hydrodynamics and mass transfer and the droplet breakage and coalescence as well.

الهندسة الكيميائيةالهندسة الكيميائية11/2/2016الهندسة الكيميائية

This paper shows that one-dimensional (1-D) [and three-dimensional (3-D) computational fluid dynamics (CFD)] simulations can replace the state-of-the-art usage of pseudo-homogeneous dispersion or back mixing models. This is based on standardized lab-scale cell experiments for the determination of droplet rise, breakage, coalescence and mass transfer parameters in addition to a limited number of additional mini-plant experiments with original fluids. Alternatively, the hydrodynamic parameters can also be derived using more sophisticated 3-D CFD simulations. Computational 1-D modeling served as a basis to replace pilot-plant experiments in any column geometry. The combination of 3-D CFD simulations with droplet population balance models (DPBM) increased the accuracy of the hydrodynamic simulations and gave information about the local droplet size. The high computational costs can be reduced by open source CFD codes when using a flexible mesh generation. First combined simulations using a three way coupled CFD/DPBM/mass-transfer solver pave the way for a safer design of industrial-sized columns, where no correlations are available.

الهندسة الكيميائيةالهندسة الكيميائية2/2/2016الهندسة الكيميائية

A hierarchical approach for modeling and simulation of coupled hydrodynamics and mass transfer in liquid extraction columns using detailed and reduced bivariate population balance models is presented. The hierarchical concept utilizes a one-dimensional CFD model with detailed bivariate population balances. This population balance model is implemented in the PPBLAB software which is used to optimize the column hydrodynamics. The optimized droplet model parameters (droplet breakage and coalescence) are then used by a two-dimensional CFD reduced population balance model. As a reduced bivariate population balance model, OPOSPM (One Primary and One Secondary Particle Method) is implemented in the commercial FLUENT software to predict the coupled hydrodynamics and mass transfer of an RDC extraction column with 88 compartments. The simulation results show that the coupled two-dimensional-OPOSPM model produces results that are very close to that of the one-dimensional PPBLAB detailed population balance model. The advantages of PPBLAB are the ease of model setup, implementation and the reduced simulation time (order of minutes), when compared to the computational time (order of weeks) and computational resources using FLUENT software. The advantages of the two-dimensional CFD model is the direct estimation of the turbulent energy dissipation using thekε model and the local resolution of continuous phase back mixing.

الهندسة الكيميائيةالهندسة الكيميائية9/1/2015الهندسة الكيميائية

الهندسة الكهربائيةالهندسة الكهربائية11/1/2016الهندسة الكهربائية

الهندسة الكهربائيةالهندسة الكهربائية10/1/2016الهندسة الكهربائية

الهندسة الكهربائيةالهندسة الكهربائية3/1/2016الهندسة الكهربائية

الهندسة الكهربائيةالهندسة الكهربائية12/1/2015الهندسة الكهربائية

الهندسة الكهربائيةالهندسة الكهربائيةالهندسة الكهربائية

الهندسة الكهربائيةالهندسة الكهربائيةالهندسة الكهربائية


Cognitive radio networks (CRNs) open up the underutilized parts of the licensed spectrum for secondary reuse, so long as this secondary access does not cause harmful interference to the licensed users. Being able to run CRNs in a completely decentralized manner, as opposed to centralized operation, can be quite advantageous, because it avoids the complexity and single point-of-failure issues that arise from the presence of a central controller, and also eliminates the difficult step of establishing and maintaining a common control channel, which can suffer from saturation and malicious attacks. To that end, we propose in this paper a novel decentralized spectrum allocation technique for CRNs that not only provides great performance in terms of high throughput, excellent fairness, and minimal interference between cognitive users but also provides very stable network operation, in which cognitive users do not have to switch their operating frequency quite regularly. This is achieved by systematically observing the history of the spectrum usage to determine the proper channel assignment in the CRN. Our proposed technique is intuitive, is completely decentralized, and allows for quick reaction to changes in the CRN, such as when the primary users licensed to use the spectrum are suddenly activated.
الهندسة الكهربائيةالهندسة الكهربائية8/10/2016الهندسة الكهربائية


In cases where the licensed radio spectrum is underutilized, cognitive radio technology enables cognitive devices to sense and then dynamically access this scarce resource making the most out of it. In this work, we introduce a simple and intuitive, yet powerful and efficient, technique that allows opportunistic channel access in cognitive radio systems in a completely distributed fashion. Our proposed method achieves very high values of spectrum utilization and throughput. It also minimizes interference between cognitive base stations and the primary users licensed to use the spectrum. The algorithm responds quickly and efficiently to variations in the network parameters and also achieves a high degree of fairness between cognitive base stations. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.​

الهندسة الكهربائيةالهندسة الكهربائية5/19/2016الهندسة الكهربائية


Peer-to-Peer (P2P) networks face the challenge of frequent pollution attacks. In such attacks, malicious peers pollute the network by sharing mislabeled, corrupt or infected content in an attempt to disrupt the system and waste network resources. When faced by such phenomenon, regular peers get discouraged from participating in the P2P network as they find less value in the system. In this work, we investigate the amount of resources required to restrain pollution attacks by means of content validation. We introduce multiple adaptive techniques that can minimize the spread of polluted content, while at the same time reduce the cost of content validation for peers participating in the network. Furthermore, the proposed pollution-restraint techniques are resistant to collusion from malicious peers, and they do not contribute to excessive communication overhead in the P2P network.​

الهندسة الكهربائيةالهندسة الكهربائية4/28/2016الهندسة الكهربائية


The fusion of Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs) and Cognitive Radio Networks (CRNs) into Cognitive Radio Sensor Networks (CRSNs) is quite an attractive proposal, because it allows a distributed set of low-powered sensor nodes to opportunistically access spectrum bands that are underutilized by their licensed owners (called primary users (PUs)). In addition, when the PUs are actively transmitting in their own bands, sensor nodes can switch to energy harvesting mode to obtain their energy needs (for free), to achieve almost perpetual life. In this work, we present a novel and fully distributed MAC protocol, called S-LEARN, that allows sensor nodes in a CRSN to entwine their RF energy harvesting and data transmission activities, while intelligently addressing the issue of disproportionate difference between the high power necessary for the node to transmit data packets and the small amount of power it can harvest wirelessly from the environment. The presented MAC protocol can improve both the network throughput and total harvested energy, while being robust to changes in the network configuration. Moreover, S-LEAR​

الهندسة الكهربائيةالهندسة الكهربائية1/31/2016الهندسة الكهربائية


Cognitive radio is an emerging wireless technology that is envisaged as a solution to the spectrum scarcity issue. To improve spectrum utilization, cognitive (unlicensed) wireless users are assigned an opportunistic access to vacant channels on the condition they avoid interference with primary (licensed) users. In this paper we present an impressive design of a low complexity and high efficiency dynamic spectrum access technique for cognitive radio networks. This spectrum assignment algorithm does not require central controllers nor the pre-establishment and maintenance of common control channels. Yet, it can provide throughput and fairness levels that approach the performance of centralized systems. In addition, the proposed technique reacts extremely well to disturbances in the cognitive radio network configuration, including when primary users are activated, or when newcomer cognitive users join the network. Furthermore, we present in this work an analytical model that can be used to provide quick predictions of the performance of our proposed algorithm.​

الهندسة الكهربائيةالهندسة الكهربائية12/12/2016الهندسة الكهربائية

A steady-state one-dimensional heat transfer method was used to measure the effective thermal conductivity of Sultani and El-Lajjun oil shale particles. The particles were packed in a cylindrical bed and heated uniformly over a temperature range of 25 to 250°C. The effect of particle sizes of < 250, 500-710, and 1000-1400 w m on thermal conductivity was also investigated. The effective thermal conductivity of the samples was observed to decrease with increasing temperature. Moreover, the values of thermal conductivity were found to increase with increasing oil content of the shale samples. Over the tested range, particle size showed little effect on thermal conductivity

الهندسة الكيميائيةالهندسة الكيميائية7/1/2002الهندسة الكيميائية

​In this investigation, spectroscopic (FT-IR, UV–Vis, 1H NMR) and chromatographic (GC) techniques were used to analyze two Jordanian shale oils, Sultani and El-Lajjun. The oils were extracted at different pyrolysis temperatures (400–500 °C) using a fluidized bed reactor. The spectroscopic and chromatographic analyses show that the variation of pyrolysis temperature has no significant effect on the composition of the produced oil. The 1H NMR results indicate that the protons of methyl and methelyene represent the bulk of the hydrogen (∼90%) in most shale oil samples. GC analysis reveals that the oil samples contain n-alkanes with a predominant proportion of n-C25.

الهندسة الكيميائيةالهندسة الكيميائية1/1/2003الهندسة الكيميائية

​Batch charges of Jordanian oil shales were burnt in a laboratory scale fluidized bed of sand. The effect of shale particle size, initial bed temperature, superficial gas velocity, sand size, and batch weight on the burnout time was investigated. Visual observation of shale burnout time, on-line CO2 concentrations in flue gas and bed temperature variation were measured simultaneously during the combustion process. The results have shown, in general, that an increase in bed temperature or superficial gas velocity was associated with a decrease in burnout time. On the contrary, an increase in particle mean size led to an increase in burnout time. The burnout time was analyzed based on the shrinking-core model, and the results indicated that chemical kinetics, rather than diffusion, significantly influenced the combustion process.

الهندسة الكيميائيةالهندسة الكيميائية3/1/2005الهندسة الكيميائية

​In this work, supercritical extraction of Jordanian oil shale was investigated experimentally using a batch autoclave device. Operating conditions such as solvent type, mixing time, temperature, pressure, and particle size effects on oil recovery from oil shale have been studied. The results indicated that oil yield increases with the increase of pressure and temperature. The maximum extract yields of 15 and 16 wt% were obtained at 42 bars and 318°C with toluene for El-Lajjun and Sultani shales, respectively. Supercritical fluid extraction (SFE) has shown to be an efficient technique since the extracted yield was 55% more than the yield obtained using the classical Fischer Assay retorting process.

الهندسة الكيميائيةالهندسة الكيميائية1/1/2014الهندسة الكيميائية

​In this work, combined thermal decomposition and extraction of Jordanian oil shale was investigated experimentally using a batch autoclave device and toluene as a solvent. The results indicated that oil yield increases with the increase of temperature and extracting time. The maximum extract yields of 16%, 9.5% and 6% by weight were obtained at 42 bars and 318°C, 200°C and 150°C, respectively. Supercritical condition of toluene (42 bars, 318°C) has shown to be a significant one since the extracted yield was 55% more than that obtained by a classical Fischer Assay experiment. Kinetic analysis based on film theory has indicated that the rate of extraction was controlled by the diffusion of extract.

الهندسة الكيميائيةالهندسة الكيميائية3/1/2016الهندسة الكيميائية
الهندسة الكهربائيةالهندسة الكهربائيةالهندسة الكهربائية
الهندسة الكهربائيةالهندسة الكهربائيةالهندسة الكهربائية
الهندسة الكهربائيةالهندسة الكهربائيةالهندسة الكهربائية
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